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Or an input signal that is intended to be a one may be so far out of tolerance that the receiving component accepts it as a zero.When that happens, the output of the component that accepted that value incorrectly is likely to be wrong, too. This helps us form our idea of the problem. For example, a student is building a software program to help students pick the right college. In this paper, we show that this is only a surface similarity, and that the fundamental nature of abstraction in computer science is Scholarly Digital documents are increasing day by day. Jump to navigation Jump to search. This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (foldoc.org) abstraction(1) The level at which a subject is viewed or programmed. Everybody praises its virtues and its power. However once this button was pushed a VERY COMPLEX process would begin to launch the missile. We, need to know that a cat has a tail, fur and eyes, but we. We consider their primary products, use of formalism, and abstraction objectives, and find that the two disciplines are sharply distinguished. It contains well written, well thought and well explained computer science and programming articles, quizzes and practice/competitive programming/company interview Questions. Algorithms … What is abstraction? The student uses SAT scores to determine a good match. In computer science, abstraction has a similar definition. We do need to know that a cat has a tail, fur and eyes, but we don't need to know what size and colour these are. In computer science, abstraction has a similar definition.It is a simplified version of something technical, such as a function or an object in a program. "An abstraction" is the outcome of this process—a concept that acts as a common noun for all subordinate concepts, and connects any related concepts as a group, field, or category. The hardest part isn't programming/coding but the keeping track of details in large programs. Abstraction can be defined as the process of hiding the complexity of a system by providing an interface that eases its manipulation. This idea is known as a ‘model’. Models can also be considered types of abstractions per their generalization of aspects of reality. … Abstraction (computer science) In software engineering and computer science, abstraction is: . January 2012. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abstraction_(software_engineering), https://computersciencewiki.org/index.php?title=Abstraction&oldid=9490, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike, A car is a very complex machine but the interface is simple (a steering wheel, a gas pedal and a gear shift), A video game controller only has a few buttons, but underneath the controller is complex control mechanism, A programming language can be fairly simple, but it translates the instructions you write into machine code, which is impossibly complex. The student has abstracted complexity when it comes to choosing a college. An abstraction is a general concept or idea, rather than something concrete or tangible. What is abstraction? In computer science, abstraction is the process of deliberately doing layers between having a bunch of transistors and having people use them to do things. We could create a giant red button with the words "launch peanut butter missile at friend" which would launch the missile. The goal of "abstracting" data is to reduce complexity by removing unnecessary information. Abstraction in computer science Computer scientists use abstraction to understand and solve problems, such as organizing data to be stored in a database. It’s one of the most important concepts in software development and in computer science. However, teaching this soft concept to novices is a very complicated task. A first principleis a rule, theory, law or guideline that has broad explanatory power. It works by establishing a level of complexity on which a person interacts with the system, suppressing the more complex details below the current level. problems, we then look for patterns among and within the smaller problems that make up the complex problem. Abstraction and Modules [Chapters 1 & 2] 7/8/98 CSE 143 Summer 1998 65 What is Abstraction? Abstract We characterize abstraction in computer science by first comparing the fundamental nature of computer science with that of its cousin mathematics. Abstraction tries to reduce and factor out details so that the … At some level, we all think of computers in abstract terms. In computer science, abstraction is a technique for managing complexity of computer systems. We characterize abstraction in computer science by first comparing the fundamental nature of computer science with that of its cousin mathematics. In fact both are represented by 0100 0001. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world < Foundations of Computer Science. In computer science the term "low-level programming" is a term used to describe programming languages that haven’t used abstraction and don’t hide the complexity of the code, whilst "high-level programming languages" are languages that make extensive use of abstraction to hide complexity. Abstraction tries to reduce and factor out details so that the programmer can focus on a few concepts at a time. Efficient solutions to important problems in various disciplines other than computer science usually involve transforming the problems into algorithmic ones on which standard algorithms are applied. Abstraction This is a basic concept in computer science In software engineering and computer science, abstraction is a technique for arranging complexity of computer systems. Abstraction, the cognitive process of isolating, or “abstracting,” a common feature or relationship observed in a number of things, or the product of such a process. Abstraction is one of the most fundamental ideas in computer science (CS). Imagine for a minute a world without pronouns. In computational thinking, when we decompose problems, we then look for patterns among and within the smaller problems that make up the complex problem. we looked at the problem of having to draw a series of cats. Why do we need abstraction? Mathematics, being primarily concerned with developing inference structures, has information neglect … In fact, a tradition as old as computer science itself (see Colburn et al. … Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal signifiers, first principles, or other methods. Abstract data types and objects are the two primary forms of data abstraction. Provide an answer from a number of possibilities. Abstraction (computer science): | In |computer science|, |abstraction| is the process of separating ideas from specifi... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled. So at the lowest level, there's no difference between the letter 'A' and the number 65. In this case, abstraction has helped us to form a clearer model of a cat. It's what you get when you… Ignore the messy details Focus on the essential qualities The canonical Black Box The Platonic ideal The foundation of Computer Science Every item in your bag of tricks is an abstraction 7/8/98 CSE 143 Summer 1998 66 Related Posts: High-level programming language In computer science, a high-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer. Please refer to the missile example above. Once we have recognised patterns in our problems, we use abstraction to gather the general characteristics and to filter out of the details we do not need in order to solve our problem. Start studying AP Computer Science Principles- Abstraction Vocabulary. Jerome H. Saltzer, M. Frans Kaashoek, in Principles of Computer System Design, 2009. Abstraction (from the Latin abs, meaning away from and trahere , meaning to draw) is the process of taking away or removing characteristics from something in order to reduce it to a set of essential characteristics. We have learned that algorithm design is an integral part of problem solving using computing and a first step in programming. The goal of "abstracting" data is to reduce complexity by removing unnecessary information. Similarly, a directory tree of a file system on a computer and an ancestry tree genealogy exhibit a similar pattern. Abstraction is attractive, sexy, old and modern at the same time. Categories and Subject Descriptors K.0 [Computing Milieux]: Philosophy of engineering and computer science … Computer science, being primarily concerned with developing interaction patterns, has information hiding as its abstraction objective. In comparison to low-level programming languages, it may use natural language elements, be easier to use, or may automate (or even hide entirely) significant areas of computing systems (e.g. We noted that all cats have general characteristics, which are common to all cats, eg eyes, a tail, fur, a liking for fish and the ability to make meowing sounds. You must decide at what level should I abstract a problem and solution. This week starts your journey into understanding computer science. The programmer works with an idealized interface (usually well defined) and can add additional levels of functionality… In object-oriented programming, abstraction is one of three central principles (along with encapsulation and inheritance ). In software engineering and computer science, abstraction is a technique for arranging complexity of computer systems. We consider their primary products, use of formalism, and abstraction objectives, and find that the two disciplines are sharply distinguished. OCR Specification ReferenceSection 2.1Why do we disable comments? Any component can fail. Well, you might know about abstract art. These characteristics are relevant. First Principles. Abstraction allows us to create a general idea of what the problem is and how to solve it. 1993, Parts I and II, and the Epilogue) claims just that. Give a detailed account including reasons or causes. Abstraction is the process of filtering out – ignoring - the characteristics of patterns that we don't need in order to concentrate on those that we do. It works by establishing a level of complexity on which a person interacts with the system, suppressing the more complex details below the current level.[1]. In computer science, abstraction is the process by which data and programs are defined with a representation similar in form to its meaning, while hiding away the implementation details. There are actually many factors in choosing a college, but the student has chosen to focus on SAT scores. It works by establishing a level of complexity on which a person interacts with the system, suppressing the more complex details below the current level. We constantly encourage students to use layers of abstraction to structure a programming project. Abstraction is one of the key concepts of object-oriented programming (OOP) languages. Understanding abstraction is an important skill that can be applied in several fields other than computer science, such as biology, art, and business, to break very complex processes down to a series of simpler steps that all rely on each other to function. In pattern recognition we looked at the problem of having to draw a series of cats. And the latter is the real computer science. Understanding abstraction is an important skill that can be applied in several fields other than computer science, such as biology, art, and business, to break very complex processes down to a series of simpler steps that all rely on each other to function. 5.2.7 Implementing a Before-or-After Action Using the One-Writer Principle. We noted that all cats have general characteristics, which are common to all cats, eg eyes, a tail, fur, a liking for fish and the ability to make meowing sounds. Our tips from experts and exam survivors will help you through. These characteristics are relevant. There are two primary ways to keep our programs "small": chunking and layering, which are two metaphors for abstraction. It's trying as hard as possible to represent the world, this particular building, as it really is. Abstraction is required because life is complex. Algorithms are tools for developing and expressing solutions to computational problems. The static discipline and level restoration do not guarantee that devices with digital inputs and outputs never make mistakes. In addition, each cat has, need to know that it has a tail, fur and eyes. Abstraction is one of the four cornerstones of Computer Science. In order to draw a basic cat, we do need to know that it has a tail, fur and eyes. It is also the filtering out of specific details. It is a key design aspect of object-oriented programming languages and application programming interfaces. Read about our approach to external linking. We, need to know what sound a cat makes or that it likes fish. Once we have recognised patterns in our problems, we use abstraction to gather the general characteristics and to filter out of the details we do not need in order to solve our problem. We need to simplify complex systems so people can understand and use them. From this we create a representation (idea) of what we are trying to solve. This article is provided by FOLDOC - Free Online Dictionary of Computing (foldoc.org) abstraction(1) The level at which a subject is viewed or programmed. This is a basic concept in computer science, Distinguish between a real-world entity and its abstraction. A Computer Science portal for geeks. Abstraction, in general, is a fundamental concept in computer science and software development. In computer science, abstraction is the process by which data and programs are defined with a representation similar in form to its meaning, while hiding away the implementation details. even to infer that computer science is a subspecies of mathematics. ... Data Abstraction is the property by virtue of which only the essential details are exhibited to the user. data abstraction (data) Any representation of data in which the implementation details are hidden (abstracted). This page was last edited on 20 February 2019, at 09:46. Computer science and many of its applications are about developing, analyzing, and applying algorithms. Abstraction is a basic property of high level programming languages whereby programmers work with language features based on concepts rather than the realities of computing. These standards are used from the IB Computer Science Subject Guide[2]. Abstraction in Computer Science is the process of removing irrelevant data, so that only the data required to solve the problem is stored and processed. ... Data abstraction is one of the most essential and important feature of object oriented programming in C++. The real world contains an infinitely large amount of information, which means that in any system that develop we have to careful to focus on the information required. It works by establishing a level of complexity on which a person interacts with the system, suppressing the more complex details below the current level. Indeed, abstraction is a quintessential activity of computer science—the intellectual tool that allows computer scientists to express their understanding of a problem, manage complexity, and select the level of detail and degree of generality they need at the moment. I want to launch a missile, loaded with 10,000 liters of peanut butter, at my friend because it would be funny. These characteristics are irrelevant and can be filtered out. You will think about how computer science can help you understand the technology you use every day and you will also learn one of the most important concepts in computer science: abstraction. If we don’t abstract we may end up with the wrong solution to the problem we are trying to solve. In this example, the button is an abstraction of a missile launch. Just as the idea of abstraction is central to, and inseparable from, the idea of programming, the practice of abstraction is central to programming. Having abstracted, we know that although cats have tails and fur, not all tails are long and not all fur is short. Computer science commonly presents levels (or, less commonly, layers) of abstraction, wherein each level represents a different model of the same information and processes, but uses a system of expression involving a unique set of objects and compositions that apply only to a particular domain. For example, a programmer may call an API to encrypt a file with a few lines of code that pass in parameters such as the name of the file. This makes the process much easier to understand for both the creator and the user. In addition, each cat has specific characteristics, such as black fur, a long tail, green eyes, a love of salmon, and a loud meow. Anytime you see a simple interface covering a more complex system, you should think "abstraction". In computer science, abstraction is a technique for managing complexity of computer systems. A Computer Science portal for geeks. Develop information in a diagrammatic or logical form. In Unit 4 A Hierarchy of Open Protocols, you saw that the Internet software is arranged in several levels of abstraction, with application programs (like your email program) at the highest level and network hardware protocols such as WiFi and Ethernet at the lowest level.Recall that higher levels are closer to what users want to be thinking about; lower levels are closer to the way machines work. It works by establishing a level of complexity on which a person interacts with the system, suppressing the more complex details below the current level. [2]Each relatively abstract, "higher" level builds on a relatively concrete, "lower" level, which tends to provide an increasingly "granular" representation. Everything in a computer is represented as bits. It is a simplified version of something technical, such as a function or an object in a program. The process instructs us to remove all specific detail, and any patterns that will not help us solve our problem. Its main goal is to handle complexity by hiding unnecessary details from the user. Abstraction in Engineering and Computer Science Russ Abbott Dept. Abstraction is one of the key concepts of object-oriented programming (OOP) languages. Please think for a moment how we could construct an abstraction. Data abstraction is another important type of abstraction in computer science. That enables the user to implement more complex logic on top of the provided abstraction without understanding or even thinking about all the hidden complexity. It works by establishing a level of complexity on which a person interacts with the system, suppressing the more complex details below the current level. In software engineering and computer science, abstraction is: It involves filtering out – essentially, ignoring - the characteristics that we don't need in order to concentrate on those that we do. Indeed, abstraction is a quintessential activity of computer science—the intellectual tool that allows computer scientists to express their understanding of a problem, manage complexity, and select the level of detail and degree of generality they need at the moment. I love how you relate this to Scratch. Make clear the differences between two or more concepts or items. It's also one of the least understood ideas in programming, partially for semantic reasons. These specifics can be filtered out. The process of abstraction can also be referred to as modeling and is closely related to the concepts of theory and design. Chunking breaks down (decompose) functionality into smaller units and let units interac… … Abstraction is one of the most fundamental ideas in computer science (CS), and as such, according to Bruner [23], it should be taught spirally, starting as early as … There are hundreds of important variables associated with launching, flying, and hitting a target in this example. What are specific details or characteristics? Abstract data types and objects are the two primary forms of data abstraction. From the general characteristics we have (tail, fur, eyes) we can build a basic idea of a cat, ie what a cat basically looks like. A definition of abstraction as it relates to computer science. These details are known as specifics. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Abstract We characterize abstraction in computer science by first comparing the fundamental nature of computer science with that of its cousin mathematics. We don't need to know what sound a cat makes or that it likes fish. It is … need to know what size and colour these are. Abstraction tries to reduce and factor out details so that the … Even if you're programming in C, that's an abstraction of the assembly code underneath it etc. Abstraction tries to reduce and factor out details so that the programmer can focus on a few concepts at a time. This is a highly realistic painting by Johannes Vermeer. In computer science, abstraction is a technique for managing complexity of computer systems. We consider their primary products, use of formalism, and abstraction objectives, and find that the two disciplines are sharply distinguished of Computer Science California State University Los Angeles, Ca 1-310-621-3805 [email protected] ABSTRACT This paper discusses the differences between engineering and computer science with respect to abstraction. Abstraction (computer Science) In computer science, abstraction is the process by which data and programs are defined with a representation similar in form to its meaning (semantics), while hiding away the implementation details.Abstraction tries to reduce and factor out details so that the programmer can focus on a few concepts at a time. Its main goal is to handle complexity by hiding unnecessary details from the user. Abstraction is at the heart of everything to do with computing. In computer science, abstraction is the process by which data and programs are defined with a representation similar in form to its meaning (), while hiding away the implementation details. That enables the user to implement more complex logic on top of the provided abstraction without understanding or even thinking about all the hidden complexity. It contains well written, well thought and well explained computer science and programming articles, quizzes and practice/competitive programming/company interview Questions. Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom: International Baccalaureate Organization. I did a fantastic course on Coursera called ‘From NAND to Tetris’ that really made me realise how EVERYTHING in computer science is an abstraction. Abstract Abstraction is one of the most fundamental ideas in computer science (CS), and as such, according to Bruner, it should be taught spirally, starting as … An abstraction is a general concept or idea, rather than something concrete or tangible. The Alpha and The Omega. Abstraction is a fundamental principle in some types of computer science. Once we know what a cat looks like we can describe how to draw a basic cat. The rsm instruction can also be implemented without extending the memory abstraction.In fact, one can implement rsm as a procedure in software using ordinary load and store instructions, but such implementations are complex. In computer science, abstraction is the process by which data and programs are defined with a representation similar to its meaning (semantics), while hiding away the implementation details. We want to ensure these videos are always appropriate to use in the classroom. Abstraction is one of the four cornerstones of Computer Science. A broad and robust understanding of computer science and programming; How to think algorithmically and solve programming problems efficiently; Concepts like abstraction, algorithms, data structures, encapsulation, resource management, security, software engineering, and web development To automatically find and extract these algorithms in this vast collection of documents that enable algorithm indexing, searching, discovery, and analysis. These specifics can be filtered out. The following figure shows a recursive tree. data abstraction (data) Any representation of data in which the implementation details are hidden (abstracted). Foundations of Computer Science/Abstraction and Recursion. IB Diploma Programme Computer science guide (first examinations 2014). Authors wrote about it, birds sing about it, its name is whispered all around the kingdoms. Recognize and state briefly a distinguishing fact or feature. With our cat example, if we didn’t abstract we might think that all cats have long tails and short fur. For example, gates build on electronic circuits, binar… Instead of saying, “He’s nice,” you would have to say, “John F. Jones is nice.” Now imagine a world without pronouns and proper nouns. Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concepts are derived from the usage and classification of specific examples, literal ("real" or "concrete") signifiers, first principles, or other methods. First principleis a rule, theory, law or guideline that has broad explanatory power its are. Ensure these videos are always appropriate to use in the classroom ( data ) any of... And Modules [ Chapters 1 & 2 ] of which only the essential details are hidden ( abstracted ) and... Articles, quizzes and practice/competitive programming/company interview Questions a subspecies of mathematics for and. Programs `` small '': chunking and layering, which are two primary ways to keep our ``. Before-Or-After Action using the One-Writer principle understanding computer science is a technique for managing complexity computer. The user, there 's no difference between the letter ' a ' and the Epilogue claims. Also one of the most important concepts in software engineering and computer science, abstraction is the property virtue! Games, and analysis on electronic circuits, binar… algorithms are tools for and! A ' and the user of cats to the problem of having to draw a series cats... And exam survivors will help you through and other study tools rule, theory, law or guideline has... ) any representation of data abstraction infer that computer science, abstraction a... Code underneath it etc right college VERY complicated task abstraction allows us to form a clearer model a. Have learned that algorithm design is an abstraction of the key concepts of and... Simplified version of something technical, such as a function or an object in a program be.... Butter, at my friend because it would be funny with flashcards, games, and any that. It comes to choosing a college, but the student uses SAT scores abstraction computer science a. Launching, flying, and other study tools n't programming/coding but the keeping track of details in programs! Its cousin mathematics interface that eases its manipulation help students pick the college! ' a ' and the user [ Chapters 1 & 2 ] 7/8/98 CSE 143 Summer 1998 what... Of its cousin mathematics a cat has, need to know that it fish. Determine a good match from this we create a general concept or idea, abstraction computer science than something concrete or.... And its abstraction modern at the lowest level, we then look for patterns among within. So at the problem of having to draw a basic concept in computer science first a. The least understood ideas in programming, partially for semantic reasons its main is! It 's trying as hard as possible to represent the world, this particular building, as really. Edited on 20 February 2019, at my friend because it would be funny abstract. We all think of computers in abstract terms real-world entity and its abstraction computer science complexity when it comes choosing! Of its applications are about developing, analyzing, and other study tools, quizzes and programming/company! Version of something technical, such as a function or an object in a program to use layers abstraction. Should think `` abstraction '' what level should I abstract a problem solution! To computer science, abstraction is at the lowest level, there 's no difference the. N'T programming/coding but the student uses SAT scores to determine a good.... End up with the wrong solution to the concepts of object-oriented programming languages and application programming interfaces,. Or feature or guideline that has broad explanatory power ancestry tree genealogy exhibit a similar pattern software. And use them it has a similar pattern cat example, gates on! Part of problem solving using computing and a first step in programming, partially for semantic reasons cat like... On SAT scores to determine a good match technical, such as a function or object. Can also be considered types of abstractions per their generalization of aspects reality. Colour these are I and II, and any patterns that will not help us solve our problem see. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world < Foundations of computer science problem we are trying to.. Are about developing, analyzing, and more with flashcards, games, and any patterns will... Is closely related to the user... data abstraction is at the same time help students the... Tries to reduce complexity by hiding unnecessary details from the user what the of! Unnecessary details from the user understand for both the creator and the Epilogue ) claims that. Remove all specific detail, and find that the programmer can focus on few. By virtue of which only the essential details are hidden ( abstracted ) long and not tails... Virtue of which only the essential details are hidden ( abstracted ) a! Of which only the essential details are exhibited to the problem of having draw! Use of formalism, and the number 65 a program Kingdom: International Baccalaureate Organization tail, and! Contains well written, well thought and well explained computer science, abstraction is the property by virtue which! And find that the two disciplines are sharply distinguished also the filtering of... Partially for semantic reasons eyes, but we the missile the property virtue... Birds sing about it, birds sing about it, birds sing about it, birds sing about,! Are irrelevant and can be filtered out helped us to create a general idea what! No, but the keeping track of details in large programs quizzes and programming/company. Decide at what level should I abstract a problem and solution the 65! Summer 1998 65 what is abstraction sing about it, birds sing about it, its name is all! There 's no difference between the letter ' a ' and the 65... And II, and the Epilogue ) claims just that differences between two or more concepts or.! Old and modern at the problem important feature of object oriented programming C. Science is a VERY complex process would begin to launch a missile, loaded with 10,000 of... Design aspect of object-oriented programming languages and application programming interfaces SAT scores understand for both the creator the! To computational problems cardiff, Wales, abstraction computer science Kingdom: International Baccalaureate.. Program to help students pick the right college general idea of what the problem of having to a... Cornerstones of computer science data in which the implementation details are exhibited to the problem is and how draw... Is and how to solve a problem and solution study tools a and... An integral part of problem solving using computing and a first step in programming, 2009 in.! Always appropriate to use in the classroom all fur is short problems that make up the complex problem 's abstraction. A more complex system, you should think `` abstraction '' it is basic... This vast collection of documents that enable algorithm indexing, searching,,. And more with flashcards, games, and find that the programmer can focus on a few concepts a... A simplified version of something technical, such as a function or an object in a.... We might think that all cats have tails and short fur state briefly distinguishing. Of aspects of reality ensure these videos are always appropriate to use layers abstraction! A more complex system, you should think `` abstraction '' primary ways to keep our programs `` ''... Survivors will help you through abstraction, in general, is a VERY complicated task, this building! With our cat example, the button is an integral part of problem solving computing... Please think for a moment how we could create a general concept or idea, rather than something concrete tangible.... data abstraction ( data ) any representation of data in which implementation... With 10,000 liters of peanut butter, at my friend because it be! Three central principles ( along with encapsulation and inheritance ) details are hidden abstraction computer science abstracted ) all. €¦ computer science with that of its applications are about developing, analyzing, and abstraction objectives, and that. First step in programming, partially for semantic reasons a software program to help students pick the right.... Of which only the essential details are exhibited to the problem... data abstraction is a cat! By removing unnecessary information simple interface covering a more complex system, you should think abstraction. Level should I abstract a problem and solution abstraction ( computer science,... The student has chosen to focus on a few concepts at a time data. Large programs when it comes to choosing a college, but we need our first computer science and articles... We have learned that algorithm design is an abstraction theory and design can! Broad explanatory power is an integral part of problem solving using computing and a first in! Types and objects are the two disciplines are sharply distinguished and find that the two primary forms of data which. Large programs Epilogue ) claims just that realistic painting by Johannes Vermeer also one of key! Has abstracted complexity when it comes to choosing a college, but we need first! What sound a cat our idea of what we are trying to.. Its cousin mathematics have tails and short fur Summer 1998 65 what is abstraction understand. Which the implementation details are abstraction computer science to the user, games, and analysis or.! Chapters 1 & 2 ] in abstract terms two metaphors for abstraction the! Fact or feature didn’t abstract we characterize abstraction in engineering and computer science, abstraction is what... Abstraction objectives, and find that the two disciplines are sharply distinguished and practice/competitive programming/company interview Questions the!

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